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Artistic Culture of the 19th Century, Part 2
August 30, 2014 15:02


Back to Artistic Culture of the 19th Century, Part 1

The outstanding characteristics of architecture and monumental art were most vividly embodied in creativity of architects A. Voronikhin, A. Zakharov, and Thomas de Tomon.

A. N. Voronikhin (1759 - 1814) was the creator of the magnificent and world famous Kazan Cathedral in St. Petersburg. Its mighty columned porticoes are monumental, whereas its dome is light and graceful. The architect paid much attention to the importance of decorative sculpture and engaged the greatest sculptors of that time I. Martos, I. Prokofiev, and F. Shchedrin in making it.
 
A. D. Zakharov (1761-1814) reconstructed the Admiralty building, having preserved its appearance and architectural elements, first of all, the well-known Korobov's gold-plated spike. 
 
The most important construction by Thomas de Tomon's (1760 - 1813) was the majestic construction of the Exchange House surrounded with prehistoric columned portico galleries. This architectural ensemble determined the image of the historical centre of Petersburg.
 
O. I. Bowe (1784-1834), who was engaged in reconstruction of the Red Square, D. I. Zhilyardi (1788-1845), A. G. Grigoryev (1782-1868), and other architects worked in Moscow.
 
Remarkable was the work of K. I. Rossi (1775-1849), the creator of outstanding ensembles of St. Petersburg squares, streets, and architectural constructions, such as the General Headquarters in the Palace Square, the Mikhailovsky Palace (nowadays the Russian Museum), Mikhaylovskaya Square (nowadays the Arts Square), new Public Theater (nowadays the A.S. Pushkin Drama Theater), the Senate and Synod buildings connected with an arch, and others.
 
One of the latest great monumental constructions in the Russian architecture of the 19th century was St. Isaac's Cathedral designed by A. A. Montferrand (1786-1858), who is also famous for erecting the Alexandria Column in the Palace Square.
K. A. Ton (1794-1881) pursued a line to the national Russian architecture. He built the Grand Kremlin Palace, and his most outstanding creation, Christ the Saviour Cathedral (1837-1883) in Moscow.
 
During that period the largest sculptors worked. I. P. Martos (1754-1835) was close to founders of Classicism in art. Having studied antique gravestones in Italy, he filled the traditional form with new content. One of his best works was the gravestone of M. P. Sobakina (a weeper draped in antique clothes and the genius of death with an extinct torch in his hand). His most outstanding creation is the Minin and Pozharsky Monument (1804 - 1818) conveying high patriotic ideals in the Red Square in Moscow.
 
B. I. Orlovsky (1793-1837) created monuments to heroes of the Patriotic War of 1812 - M. I. Kutuzov and the M. B. Barclay de Tolly - in the spirit of Classicism. A representative of late Classicism in sculpture was I. P. Vitali (1794-1855), the creator of fountain sculptures in the Neskuchny Garden and those in front of the Bolshoi Theater in Moscow.
 
Realistic tendencies were shown in sculptures by P. K. Klodt (1805-1867), the creator of horse groups for Anichkov Bridge in Petersburg, I. A. Krylov Monument, and the horse monument to Nicholas I.
 
Painting of the first third of the 19th century was developing in all the genres: portrait, landscape, still life, and history painting. The historical subject found reflection in works by artists working in line with Classicism, but resorting to the Russian subject. 
 
Alexander Ivanov (1776-1848) created the paintings Feat of the Young Kiev Dweller in the Siege of Kiev in 968, Single Combat of Mstislav Udaly with Prince Rededey, and others.
 
 

Author: Vera Ivanova

Tags: Russian Culture Russian History    

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