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The Most Beautiful Moscow Buildings, Part 1
October 21, 2014 15:17


Kremlin Wall

The most laconic and recognizable of all architectural symbols of Moscow is the dove-tail castellation silhouette of the upper part of the Kremlin Wall. The wall is one of the most ancient constructions of the city. Milan architects who designed it in the late 15th century based it on the castellations of the Italian Ghibellines, the opponents of Vatican. At the same time the Guelfs, members of political faction in Italy supporting the papacy in the Middle Ages, had fortresses with simple rectangular battlements, which therefore could not be used for the citadel of Orthodox Christian religion. 
 
Assumption Cathedral
 
The Assumption Cathedral is located in the Cathedral Square of the Moscow Kremlin. It was built in the late 15th century by the Italian architect Aristotle Fioravanti. For three centuries it was the principal church of the Moscow State. Nowadays it is the oldest intact building of Moscow. Its walls keep remaining fragments of the original frescos painted by the famous icon painter Dionysius. This is where Ivan the Terrible was crowned tsar for the first time in 1547. Later all Russian emperors, starting with Peter II were crowned in the Assumption Cathedral. It was closed in 1918 and opened as a museum in 1955. Church services were resumed there on gala days in 1990.
 
Ascension Church in Kolomenskoye 
 
This is the first tent-shaped church in Russia and it was built in 1528-1532. It was designed by the Italian architect Pyotr Francis Hannibal allegedly; however, the Russian chronicles mention Pyotr Fryazin or Petroko Maly. As a legend goes, the construction of this church was dedicated to the birth of Ivan IV, the long-awaited successor of the tsar.
 
The church interior has not come down to us. The church repair in the 16th century included turning the white and gray clay tiles on the floor upside down. This is when the church got its Royal Doors, which has come down to us. The last restoration carried out in 2002-2005 brought about annihilation of wooden roof constructions over church porches. 
The Ascension Church in Kolomenskoye is a masterpiece of world architecture and the first stone tent church in Russia. The Kolomenskoye Museum Estate is located close to the Kolomenskoye metro station. 
 
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Yaroslavsky railway station

 
A small station of the Yaroslavl railroad was built between the Krasny Pond and the Nikolaevsky Station in 1862. In 1900 the Railway Ministry entrusted radical reconstruction of the passenger hall to the architect Lev Kekushev, and then Fedor Schechtel was invited for adjustment of his project. Its roof, as high as that of Old Russian towers, is crowned with a crest. The station building has a wide belt frieze of a flickering green-brown glazed tile, majolica insertions with scenes on “northern” drawings by Fedor Schechtel, an upright left tower, a large lobby entrance arch with semicircular turrets on every side. Its deep pediment niche had relief symbols of three great cities that the Yaroslavl (Northern) railroad connected: Saint Georges (emblem of Moscow), a bear with a pole-axe (emblem of Yaroslavl), and Archangel Michael (emblem of Arkhangelsk).
 
It is located not far from the Komsomolskaya metro station.
 
 
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Author: Vera Ivanova

Tags: Moscow Architecture Russian Architecture Most Beautiful Moscow Buildings Old Moscow  

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