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General Education
March 14, 2006 14:53



GENERAL ELEMENTARY EDUCATION

General Information


General elementary education is the first stage of general education.

In Russian Federation general elementary education is compulsory and open to the public.

The federal component of the state standard of general elementary education develops brand new personality-oriented model of mass elementary school and provides accomplishment of the following main goals:

  • Progress of schoolchild's personality, his creative abilities, interest in studies, will and ability to learn;
  • Development of moral and aesthetic senses, system of values and emotions and positive attitude towards a child's self and the surrounding world;
  • Assimilation of the system of knowledge, skills, abilities and experience of performing various activities;
  • Children physical and mental health care and development;
  • Sustainable development of child's personality.

The priorities of general elementary education are: forming general learning skills and abilities, which, to the large extent, will predetermine further successful learning process.

The educational standard emphasizes intersubject communications, which helps integrating the subjects, preventing subjects' segregation and pupils' overwork.

Development of small children's personality and abilities is based on gaining experience in various activities, such as studying and learning, practical and social activities. That is why educational standard pays much attention to active and practical educational component, certain actions and application of acquired knowledge and abilities in real-life situations.

Russian primary school's peculiarity is that children, who come there, have received different training, have different social experience and psychophysiological background. The mission of general elementary education is to help every child to realize his abilities and to provide necessary conditions for individual development of a child.

The federal component of the state standard of general elementary education lists following compulsory core subjects: Russian Language, Literature and Reading, Foreign Language, Mathematics, World Environment, Arts, Music, Technology, Physical Education.

Since the third year the "Computer Practice (Information Technologies Application)" course is trained within the Technology course, where necessary conditions are available.

The Russian Language and Literature and Reading courses have two variants for schools, teaching in Russian and for schools, teaching in native (non-Russian) language.

The Foreign Language course is taught since the second year of training in schools, where necessary conditions are available.

Pupils, who successfully pass the stage of general elementary education (fulfilling the requirements for those, who finish elementary school), continue training at the stage of general secondary education.

GENERAL SECONDARY EDUCATION

General Information


General Secondary Education is the second stage of general education.

According to the Russian Federation Constitution general secondary education is compulsory and open to the public.

The federal component of the state standard of general secondary education adjusts its content for age-specific characteristics of teenagers, when a child longs for real-life practical activities, world cognition, self-actualization and self-determination The standard is not only knowledge-oriented, but also activity-oriented, which helps increasing learning motivation and realizing child's abilities, potentials, requirements and interests to the full extent. The specific character of secondary school teaching goals is linked more with child's personal development, than with his learning progress.

The federal component has following main goals:

  • Formation of an integral world view, based on acquired knowledge, skills, experience and work methods;
  • Gaining experience in various activities (personal and collective), cognition and self-actualization;
  • Preparations for conscious choice of personal learning or professional direction.

General Secondary Education is the final stage of compulsory education in Russian Federation. Thus, one of the major requirements for this educational stage is achieving functional literacy, which is essential in modern society, in mathematics and natural sciences, as well as in sociology and culture.

One of the main aims of secondary school is preparation of pupils for performing conscious and important choice of further life and career. The basic requirement for this is consistent learning individualization and pre-professional training on the last stage of attending secondary school.

Pupils of secondary schools must learn to formulate their goals independently and to define the ways for achieving them and to apply their school experience in real life, beyond the learning process.

The federal component of the state standard of general secondary education lists following compulsory core subjects: Russian Language, Literature, Foreign Language, Mathematics, informatics and information and communication technologies, History, Social Studies (including Economics and Law), Geography, Nature Studies, Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Arts (Fine arts and Music), Technology, Safety Of Living, Physical Education.

The Russian Language course has two versions - for schools, teaching in Russian and for schools, teaching in native (non-Russian) language.

The Literature course is developed for possible teaching in schools, teaching in Russian and in schools, teaching in native (non-Russian) language.

The Nature Studies course is taught in 5th form as a base for further learning of natural sciences. In the next, 6th form, educational institutions may continue teaching Nature Studies and introduce Biology and Geology integrated course.

The stage of general secondary education ends with compulsory final state examinations. The said examinations are developed on the base of state standard requirements to the graduates' level of training.

GENERAL (SENIOR) SECONDARY EDUCATION

General Information


General (senior) secondary education is the final, third, stage of general education in Russia.

General (senior) secondary education is open to the public according to the Russian Federation Law "On Education".

The senior stage of general education school undergoes the most serious structural, organizational and conceptual reassignments due to the education modernization process. The social essence of these changes is to provide personally oriented and variable education, as well as differentiated and individualized training. Education changes in response to the demand of modern society to reveal personal abilities of an individual and to form on this basis a mobile personality, which is professionally and socially competent, able to make professional and social choice and to be responsible for this choice. This personality should also understand its citizenship and civil rights and defend it.

The federal component has following goals:

  • Formation of civil responsibility and legal consciousness, spirituality and culture, self-dependence, creativity and ability for successful socialization in the society in an individual;
  • Education differentiation with broad and flexible opportunities for developing individual educational programmes for high-school students based on their abilities, needs and affections;
  • Providing students with equal opportunities for further professional education and career considering actual labor markets demands.

Educational courses have two levels - basic and subject ones. Both levels belong to general education system, but are oriented on decision priorities of different groups of tasks.

The basic level of the educational course standard is oriented on formation of common culture and is linked mostly to the socialization tasks of general education - view of the world, education and progress.

The subject level of the educational course standard is chosen according to the personal preferences and affections of a student and is oriented on his preparations for further professional education or professional occupation.

General education institutions consider their resources and educational requirements of students and their parents (legal representatives), thus forming their own education profiles (certain set of subjects, taught at the basic or subjects level of education).

The federal component of the state standard of general (senior) secondary education lists following core subjects: Russian Language, Literature, Foreign Language, Mathematics, informatics and information and communication technologies, History, Social Studies, Economics, Law, Geography, Biology, Physics, Chemistry, Natural Studies, World Art and Culture), Technology, Safety Of Living, Physical Education.

The Natural Studies course is taught only at the basic level. Educational institutions have a right to replace basic level courses of Biology, Physics and Chemistry with it.

All profiles have following compulsory courses on their basic level: Russian Language, Literature, Foreign Language, Mathematics, History and Physical Education (if none is chosen for teaching on the subject level), and also integrated courses of Social Studies (including Economics and Law) and Natural Studies.

Other courses of the basic level are taught selectively.

The stage of general (senior) secondary education ends with compulsory final state examinations. The said examinations are developed on the base of state standard requirements to the graduates' level of training.

The students, who finished the stage of general (senior) secondary education and fit the requirements for graduates' training level, have a right to continue their training in educational institutions of primary, secondary and higher professional education.


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