Add to favorite
 

   

 Nikolai Semenov


Born:   April 3, 1896
Deceased:   September 25, 1986

Russian scientist

      

"for his researches into the mechanism of chemical reactions"
 

Nikolai Nikolaevich Semenov was born in Saratov on April 3, 1896. He graduated from Petrograd University in 1917 and in 1920 he took charge of the electron phenomena laboratory of the Leningrad Physico-Technical Institute. He lectured at the Polytechnical Institute and was appointed Professor in 1928. In 1931, he became Director of the Institute of Chemical Physics of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences (which has moved to Moscow in 1943); from 1944 he has been a Professor at the Moscow State University.

Semenov's outstanding work on the mechanism of chemical transformation includes an exhaustive analysis of the application of the chain theory to varied reactions and, more especially, to combustion processes. He proposed a theory of degenerate branching which led to a better understanding of the phenomena associated with the induction periods of oxidation processes. Semenov has made valuable contributions to the field of molecular physics; he has also carried out investigations on electron phenomena, dielectric breakdown and the propagation of explosive waves.

Semenov has written two important books concerned with his work. Chemical Kinetics and Chain Reactions was published in 1934 with an English edition in 1935. It was the first book in the U.S.S.R. to develop a detailed theory of unbranched and branched chain reactions in chemistry. Some Problems of Chemical Kinetics and Reactivity, first published in 1954, was revised in 1958; there are also English, American, German, and Chinese editions.

He became a Corresponding Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences in 1929 and Academician in 1932: he was awarded five Orders of Lenin and the Order of Red Banner of Labour. He is a member of the Chemical Society (London), Foreign Member of the Royal Society, and foreign member of the American, Indian, German, and Hungarian Academies of Sciences. He also holds Honorary Doctorate degrees of Oxford and Brussels Universities, and since 1960 he has been Chairman of the All-Union Society for Propagation of Political and Scientific Knowledge.

He married Natalya Nikolaevna Semenova; they have one son and one daughter.

From Nobel Lectures, Chemistry 1942-1962, Elsevier Publishing Company, Amsterdam, 1964
 

This autobiography/biography was written at the time of the award and later published in the book series Les Prix Nobel/Nobel Lectures. The information is sometimes updated with an addendum submitted by the Laureate. To cite this document, always state the source as shown above.
 

Nikolay Semenov died on September 25, 1986

Link to Nikolay Semenov's Nobel Lecture:
http://nobelprize.org/chemistry/laureates/1956/semenov-lecture.html
Link to Nikolay Semenov's Banquet Speech:
http://nobelprize.org/chemistry/laureates/1956/semenov-speech.html
 


Tags: Russian science Russian scientists Nikolai Semenov   








Comment on our site


RSS   twitter   facebook   submit

Bookmark and Share

-8

search on the map
TAGS:
Tver  Russian history  Russian Cinema  Tourist maps  Moscow  Russia-Libya  Russian Arts and Crafts  Exhibitions in Moscow  tour operators  Interactive Maps  Mariinsky theatre  Soyuz-5  Treasures  How to Get to Vnukovo Airport  Russian biologists  Polytechnic Museum  Alexey Navalny  health  Russian spacecrafts  Kostroma  Russian opposition activists  Education and Science Minister  Mercedes-Benz Fashion Week Russia  Russian sanctions   Russian opposition  Lagan  Orient  fashion designer  St. Petersburg  Russian Literature  Winzavod  Evgeny Roizman  Etching  Russian tourism  Russian business  Lipetsk   Russian television  Pyotr Kotov  Museums of Izhevsk  Russian painters  Penny Whistles  Mstislav Rostropovich  IT  Rostov  Archeology  Russian modern history  Sergey Kupriyanov  World Combat Games   Peterhof  Yandex 


Travel Blogs
Top Traveling Sites