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Russian Nobel Laureates
August 11, 2011 15:04

Ivan Petrovich Pavlov (Biography)
Who: Russian physiologist, whose research on the physiology of digestion led to the development of the first experimental model of learning, Classical Conditioning. Most of his research was gathered studying salivating dogs. Ivan Pavlov's discovery and research on reflexes influenced the growing behaviorist movement, and his work was often cited in John B. Watson's writings. Other researchers utilized Pavlov's work in the study of conditioning as a form of learning. His research also demonstrated techniques of studying reactions to the environment in an objective, scientific method.
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, 1904 (in detail)
Statement: "in recognition of his work on the physiology of digestion, through which knowledge on vital aspects of the subject has been transformed and enlarged".

 Ilya Ilyich Mechnikov (Biography)
Who: Russian biologist, zoologist and protozoologist, best remembered for his pioneering research into the immune system. He is also credited by some sources with coining the term gerontology in 1903, for the emerging study of aging and longevity. Mechnikov enriched medicine with many discoveries, and laid the foundation for a new direction in biology – evolutionary embryology. He discovered the phagocytosis phenomenon and his zoological and embryological experiments were laid in the foundation of the phagocytic theory of immunity
 The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1908 (jointly to Paul Ehrlich) (in details)

Statement: "in recognition of their work on immunity"

Wilhelm Ostwald
Who: Russian-German chemist and philosopher who was instrumental in establishing physical chemistry as an acknowledged branch of chemistry.Throughout his career as a chemist Ostwald followed the general approach of applying physical measurements and mathematical reasoning to chemical issues. One of his major research topics was the chemical affinities of acids and bases. To that end, he studied the points of equilibria in reaction systems where two acids in an aqueous solution compete with each other for a reaction with one base and vice versa. 
The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1909
Statement: "in recognition of his work on catalysis and for his investigations into the fundamental principles governing chemical equilibria and rates of reaction".

Ivan Alekseyevich Bunin (Biography)
Who:  the first Russian writer to win the Nobel Prize for Literature for the strict artistry with which he has carried on the classical Russian traditions in prose writing The texture of his poems and stories, sometimes referred to as "Bunin brocade", is considered to be one of the richest in the language. Bunin achieved his greatest mastery in the short story, and much of his finest work appeared in this volume-the largest collection of his prose works ever published in English. His works afforded readers of English their first opportunity for a sustained encounter with a Russian classic.
The Nobel Prize in Literature 1933 (in details)
Statement: "for the strict artistry with which he has carried on the classical Russian traditions in prose writing".

Nikolay Nikolayevich Semenov (Biography)
Who: Russian physicist, who studied chemical reactions, and showed that most chemical transformations result from chain and branched-chain chemical reactions. His work on controlled explosions led to increased efficiency in automotive, jet, and rocket engines, and other industrial machinery. In 1927 he introduced the theory of branched chain reactions, explaining the character of an explosion, in which the number of chain carriers is increased with each propagation, causing the reaction to accelerate very quickly.
The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1956 (jointly to Sir Cyril Norman Hinshelwood) (in details)
Statement: "for their researches into the mechanism of chemical reactions"



 Ilya Mikhailovich Frank
Pavel Alekseyevich Cherenkov (Biography)
Igor Yevgenyevich Tamm (Biography)
Who: Soviet physicist Pavel A. Cherenkov was the namesake of Cherenkov radiation, the rather faint blue glow emitted from radium and radioactive materials when immersed in liquid. Though he was unable to explain the source of the blue light, he quantified it in a 1934 paper and showed that the effect is not related to fluorescence.
  In 1937 Ilya M. Frank and Igor Y. Tamm, two of his colleagues at the P. N. Lebedev Physical Institute in Moscow, showed that the phenomenon is caused when the liquid slows the speed of light, and charged particles from the radium move through the liquid at velocities faster than that slowed speed of light. Called the Cherenkov effect, the principle has since been harnessed to develop high-speed particle detectors, and used in the study of subatomic particles and cosmic rays.
The Nobel Prize in Physics 1958 (in details)
Statement: "for the discovery and the interpretation of the Cherenkov effect".

Boris Leonidovich Pasternak (Biography)
 Who: Russian poet, novelist, and translator of Goethe and Shakespeare. Outside his 
  homeland, Pasternak is best known for authoring Doctor Zhivago, a novel set during the last years of the House of Romanov and the earliest days of the Soviet Union. After Doctor Zhivago had reached the West, it was soon translated into 18 languages, and then brought Pasternak the Nobel Prize for Literature. Though Pasternak was not a political writer, the award brought him brought him into the spotlight of international politics and he had to decline the honour. He was rehabilitated only in 1987, which made possible the publication of his major work.
The Nobel Prize in Literature 1958 (in details)
Statement: "for his important achievement both in contemporary lyrical poetry and in the field of the great Russian epic tradition". (was forced to decline the prize)

Lev Davidovich Landau (Biography)
Who: a prominent Russian scientist, was one of the finest theoretical physicists of the 20th century. He was remarkable for the breadth of his erudition and his ability to move with ease between various branches of physics. His most important contribution, for which he was awarded the Nobel Prize ics, was to develop the theoretical understanding of the properties of helium: liquefying at 4.2 K, helium-4 becomes superfluid below 2.2Kas though it has no viscosity at all and exhibits an extremely high thermal conductivity. Landau's theory predicted that sound would travel in superfluid helium-3 as both pressure and heat waves.
The Nobel Prize in Physics 1962 (in details)
Statement: "for his pioneering theories for condensed matter, especially liquid helium"

   Nikolay Gennadiyevich Basov (Biography)
Aleksandr Mikhailovich Prokhorov (Biography)
Who: Russian physicits and researchers known for their pioneering research on lasers and masers. They developed theoretical grounds for creation of a molecular oscillator and constructed such an oscillator based on ammonia. They also proposed a method for the production of population inversion using inhomogeneous electric and magnetic fields.
The Nobel Prize in Physics 1964 (jointly to Charles Hard Townes) (in details)
Statement: "for fundamental work in the field of quantum electronics, which has led to the construction of oscillators and amplifiers based on the maser-laser principle".

Mikhail Aleksandrovich Sholokhov (Biography)
Who: an outstanding 20th century Russian novelist. Sholokhov's best-known work, Tikhy Don, is remarkable for the objectivity of its portrayal of the heroic and tragic struggle of the Don Cossacks against the Bolsheviks for independence. It became the most widely read novel in the Soviet Union and was heralded as a powerful example of Socialist Realism, and it earned him the 1965 Nobel Prize in Literature.
The Nobel Prize in Literature 1965 (in details)
Statement: "for the artistic power and integrity with which, in his epic of the Don, he has given expression to a historic phase in the life of the Russian people".


 Aleksandr Isayevich Solzhenitsyn (Boigraphy)
Who: Russian and Soviet novelist, dramatist, and historian. Through his often-suppressed writings, he helped to raise global awareness of the Gulag, the Soviet Union's forced labor camp system – particularly in The Gulag Archipelago and One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich, two of his best-known works. Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn continued the realistic tradition of Dostoevsky and Tolstoy and complemented it with his views of the flaws of both East and West. Clearly a novelist in the 19th-century tradition, he is often considered Russia's greatest 20th-century novelist.
The Nobel Prize in Literature 1970 (in details)
Statement: "for the ethical force with which he has pursued the indispensable traditions
of Russian literature".

Leonid Vitaliyevich Kantorovich (Biography)
Who: Soviet mathematician and economist, known for his theory and development of techniques for the optimal allocation of resources. His most famous work is The Best Use of Economic Resources (1959). Kantorovich pioneered the technique of linear programming as a tool of economic planning, having developed a linear programming model in 1939. Although his background was purely mathematical, his work showed a keen understanding of the economic aspects of problems. He developed a concept called resolving multipliers that corresponds to the shadow prices in Western economic literature. 
The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1975 (jointly to  Tjalling C. Koopmans) (in details)
Statement: "for their contributions to the theory of optimum allocation of resources"

Andrei Dmitrievich Sakharov (Biography)
Who: Soviet nuclear physicist, dissident and human rights activist. Sakharov was an advocate of  civil liberties and reforms in the Soviet Union. He was fascinated by fundamental physics and cosmology, but first he spent two decades designing nuclear weapons. He came to be regarded as the father of the Soviet hydrogen bomb, contributing perhaps more than anyone else to the military might of the USSR. But gradually Sakharov became one of the regime's most courageous critics, a defender of human rights and democracy. He could not be silenced, and helped bring down one of history's most powerful dictatorship.
The Nobel Peace Prize 1975 (in details)
Statement: "In a convincing manner Sakharov has emphasised that Man’s inviolable rights provide the only safe foundation for genuine and enduring international cooperation."

Ilya Prigogine (Biography)
Who: Russian-born naturalized Belgian physical chemist and Nobel Laureate noted for his work ondissipative structures, complex systems, and irreversibility. Prigogine developed the concept of 
dissipative structures to describe the coherent space-time structures that form in open systems in
which an exchange of matter and energy occurs between a system and its environment. His work is seen by many as a bridge between natural sciences and social sciences.
The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1977
Statement: "for his contributions to non-equilibrium thermodynamics, particularly the theory of dissipative structures".

Pyotr Leonidovich Kapitsa (Biography)
Who: Russian outstanding physicist who discovered super-fluidity with contribution from John F. 
  Allen and Don Misener in 1937. He was awarded honorary degrees from such Universities as Paris, Columbia and Delhi, among others. An Academic of the Soviet Academy of Sciences, a member of the Academy’s General Committee, twice a Hero of Socialist Labor, a physics Nobel 
Prize winner and the winner of two Stalin Prizes. He invented the pulse method of creating super
strong magnetic fields and a machine for adiabatic helium cooling. Kapitsa resistance is the thermal resistance (which causes a temperature discontinuity) at the interface between liquid helium and a solid.
The Nobel Prize in Physics 1978 (Jointly to Arno Allan Penzias and Robert Woodrow Wilson) (in details)
Statement: "for his basic inventions and discoveries in the area of low-temperature physics"

Joseph Brodsky (Biography)
Who: Russian-American poet and essayist. He was expelled from the Soviet Union in 1972 for alleged "social parasitism" and settled in America. Celebrated as the greatest Russian poet of his generation, Brodsky authored nine volumes of poetry, as well as several collections of essays, and received the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1987. His first book of poetry in English translation appeared in 1973. Brodsky is most known for his poetry collections A Part of Speech (1977) and To Urania (1988) and the essay collection Less Than One (1986), which won the National Book Critics Circle Award. Other notable works include the play Marbles (1989) and Watermark, a prose collection (1992).
The Nobel Prize in Literature 1987 (in details)
Statement: "for an all-embracing authorship, imbued with clarity of thought and poetic intensity"

Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev (Biography)
(born in 1930)
Who: Soviet official, the general secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU) from 1985 to 1991 and president of the Soviet Union in 1990–91. His efforts to democratize his country’s political system and decentralize its economy led to the downfall of communism and the breakup of the Soviet Union in 1991. In part because he ended the Soviet Union’s postwar domination of eastern Europe, Gorbachev was awarded the Nobel Prize for Peace in 1990. He was the only general secretary in the history of the Soviet Union to have been born during the Communist rule.
The Nobel Peace Prize 1990 (in details)
Statement: "for his leading role in the peace process which today characterizes important parts of the international community".

Zhores I. Alferov (Biography)
(born in 1930)
Who: Soviet and Russian physicist and academic who contributed significantly to the creation of modern heterostructure physics and electronics. He is an inventor of the heterotransistor and the winner of 2000 Nobel Prize in Physics. His contributions to physics and technology of semiconductor heterostructures, especially investigations of injection properties, development of lasers, solar cells, LED's, and epitaxy processes have led to the creation of modern heterostructure physics and electronics. He is also a Russian politician and has been a member of the Russian State Parliament, the Duma, since 1995. Lately, he has become one of the most influential members of the Communist Party of the Russian Federation.
The Nobel Prize in Physics 2000 (jointly to Herbert Kroemer and Jack S. Kilby) (in details)
Statement: "for developing semiconductor heterostructures used in high-speed- and opto electronics"

   Vitaly L. Ginzburg (Biography)
Alexei A. Abrikosov (Biography)
(born in 1928)
Who: Ginzburg is a Soviet theoretical physicist, astrophysicist, Nobel laureate, a member of the Russian Academy of Sciences and one of the fathers of Soviet hydrogen bomb. He was the successor to Igor Tamm as head of the Department of Theoretical Physics of the Academy's physics institute (FIAN), and an outspoken atheist. Ginzburg is the author of several hundred papers and a dozen books devoted to physics and astrophysics.
  Abrikosov is a Soviet and Russian theoretical physicist whose main contributions are in the field of condensed matter physics. Abrikosov discovered the way in which magnetic flux can penetrate a superconductor. The phenomenon is known as type-II superconductivity, and the accompanying arrangement of magnetic flux lines is called the Abrikosov vortex lattice.
The Nobel Prize in Physics 2003 (Jointly to Anthony J. Leggett) (in details)
Statement: "for pioneering contributions to the theory of superconductors and superfluids"

Leonid Hurwicz
Who: was a Russian-born American economist and mathematician who is known to fifty years of students as a professor and to his peers as the researcher who originated incentive compatibility and mechanism design which are used in economics, social science and political science to achieve desired outcomes. Hurwicz was Regents’ Professor of Economics (Emeritus) at the University of Minnesota. He is among thefirst economists to recognize the value of game theory and is a pioneer in its application. To date, Leonid Hurwicz is the oldest Nobel Laureate, having received the prize at the age of 90.
The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 2007 (jointly to Eric S. Maskin and Roger B. Myerson)
Statement: "for having laid the foundations of mechanism design theory"

   Andre Geim
(born in 1958)
Konstantin Novoselov
(born in 1974)
Who: Russian-born scientists, professors at the University of Manchester. Geim is a Dutch national, while Novoselov holds British and Russian citizenship. Both were born in Russia and also started their careers there. They were the Nobel Prize in physics for their discovery of graphene - the material with unusual properties, which makes it the material of choice for a number of emerging pieces of technology. Thanks to its honeycombed structure, it has astounding stability and is so far the most rigid material on earth. It’s also conductive and almost transparent.
The Nobel Prize in Physics 2010 (In details)
Statement: "for groundbreaking experiments regarding the two-dimensional material graphene"

Sources: Wikipedia

Read also: Education and Science Culture and Art

Author: Julia Shuvalova

Tags: Russian science Russian literature Nobel Prize Russian people  

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