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The town of Obninsk occupied the sites, where ancient Neolithic settlements, dating 7 thousand years back, were discovered n the banks of the Protva river.

Modern city is rich in archeological monuments, since for centuries people traveled from West to Moscow via these territories. These lands were not apart any significant historical event, which took place in Russia Tatar invasion, Polish and Lithuanian interveners, Crimean Tatars, French army headed by Napoleon and etc. Ancient Russian villages, located at the site of future Obninsk, were first mentioned in the chronicles in 1588.

These lands used to belong to representatives of noble Russian families: Belkin, Skuratov, Boris Godunov, but since 1840 the owners bear the name of Obninskie. The most famous member of the Obninskie family was Viktor Obninskiy, marshal of the nobility and a writer. The Obninskie family consisted of highly educated persons, who had many friends among famous Russian people of art.

Since 1911 the lands of future Obninsk hosted a summer camp for children from poor families, and later the camp was transformed into the school, headed by the innovative teacher S. Shatskiy, who defended his life to development of public education. From 1937 the school hosted a children's home for children from Spain, whose parents struggled against the Fascist regime. Many little Spaniards found their second motherland there. In 1941 the lands were occupied by the German troops, and Spanish children were evacuated to another location in the USSR.

Obninsk, the city of science, started from the secret object V (today the Institute of Physics and Power Engineering), which was established in 1946 for performing research in the field of nuclear physics. For working in the Laboratory V Soviet government invited several German experts from Leipzig University and Kaiser-Wilhelm laboratory , as well as Soviet physicists from best domestic higher educational institutions. First nuclear power plant in the world was launched on June 27, 1954, and Obninsk appeared on the Soviet maps.

The Laboratory V became the Institute of Physics and Power Engineering in 1960. Today the Institute is named after famous scientist A.I. Leipunsky and lists among largest centres of complex studies of applications for nuclear energy. The Institute played a great role in development of nuclear submarine A.I. Leipunsky headed works in this field in 1950s. It is here where first training system for nuclear submarine personnel was created. In 1950s and early 1960s Obninsk acquired many new science and research institutes, which appeared due to nuclear research boom. Research fields of new institutions covered meteorology, medical and agricultural radiology, radiation chemistry, light non-metallic materials for aviation and defense industry, processes, taking place inside our planet and etc. Today Obninsk is home for 11 science and research institutes. The town is famous all around the world due to eminent scientists.




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