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    Rostov

The city of Rostov emerges on lands near lake Nero, belonging to Finno-Ugric tribes, and is first mentioned in the Russian chronicles Tale of Bygone Years in 862. A legend says Rostov is named after the man called Rost, who founded the city. Chronicles tell about Rostov citizens, who participated in Prince Olegs campaigns against enemy towns Kiev (882) and Tsargrad, which means City of Tsars in 907. At the same time Slavonic population starts inhabiting the town.

In 988 Rostov goes to the son of Kiev Prince Vladimir Svyatoslavovich, who would be later known as Yaroslav the Wise. Yaroslav rules the town till 1010. Later the prince founds a town, 60 km away from Rostov, and names it Yaroslavl for himself. The X century is the time, when weak sprouts of Christianity appear in ancient Rus, and in 989 Rostov authorities decide to replace Russian initial religion paganism with Orthodox Christianity. They gather population of the whole town and make people enter waters of the Nero Lake in groups of 10-15 persons. Byzantine priests, who are invited for this very occasion, baptize people, giving one name for a group. For many years Rostov dwellers rebel against the religion, they were forced to adopt, and restore temples of pagan gods Veles and Yarilo. Furious pagans kill first Rostov bishop Leontiy in 1071. The last riot is put down in 1073.

After Yaroslav the Wise dies in 1054, Rostov, Pereslavl and other towns of the district, pass to Vsevolod, and later to Vladimir Monomakh. The town is a secondary settlement, which is governed by authorities, located in the city of Vladimir. In 1147 a small settlement called Moscow appears on the lands, belonging to Rostov the Great. Epithet the Great, which becomes commonly used with Rostov in XII century, refers more to towns spiritual and secular importance than to its size.

In 1207 Rostov becomes the capital of an independent princedom, which in 1216 unites cities of Yaroslavl, Uglich, Beloozero (White Lake) and Ustuig. However, as soon as in 1219 the princedom divides into three parts the Rostov, Yaroslavl and Uglich princedoms. Rostov dwellers actively take part in war campaigns against their neighbors, however, in 1238 Tatars and Mongols arrive, defeating every isolated princedom. Prince of Rostov and his armed force die during the battle on the river Sith, and the city is invaded by enemies.

In 1320 the princedom consists of so many fragments, that there are not enough cities for appanage princes to rule. Even Rostov is divided into two parts Eastern and Western Rostov, and is governed by two princes simultaneously. Lay people invent a proverb, describing the situation Every Rostov village has its own prince. Small princedoms are slowly absorbed by Moscow, which exploited Tatars and Mongols for its own purposes. In 1322 united forces of Moscow and Tatars cause great damage to the city, killing many people, and in 1339 Ivan Kalita, who was fighting with Tver at that time, invades Rostov, whose citizens support Tver.

In 1474 last appanage of the Rostov princedom is bought by Ivan III, thus ending history of citys independence. For some time Rostov remains a flourishing town, located in the northern trade way to Yaroslavl, Vologda, Kirillov, Archangelsk and Great Ustuig.

In the beginning of the XVII century the city is invaded by Polish and Lithuanian interventionists. The citizens, headed by voevode Tretyak Seitov, heroically resist the invaders. Their last bastion is the Uspensky cathedral, inside which the sieged keep fighting until they all are killed. Legends say that even women participated in the fight, one of them, Princess Maria Lobanova, killed the leader of the Poles and his Russian ally. Despite active defense, the city is ruined and burned down.

In 1612 the city is liberated from invaders by Minin and Pozharsky. Various buildings are actively constructed, the city grows and gets rich until 1788, when metropolitans move to Yaroslavl. In 1788 Rostovs decline starts.

Communist regime caused another significant damage to the city. Most churches are destroyed or fall into neglect. In the thirties of the XX century the Uspensky cathedral is turned to coffee storehouse and becomes the church again only in 1991, looking complete disaster. However, Lord blessed Rostov, and its historic centre isnt touched by industry and civil engineering.



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Rostov
  (Yaroslavl Region)

Cities of the region

    Yaroslavl
    Uglich
    Pereslavl Zalessky
    Rybinsk
    Myshkin
    Tutaev
    Gavrilov-Yam
    Danilov
    Lyubim

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