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Ancient Kazan arose as a military fortress in the north of the Volga Bulgaria. First it covered north-eastern part of the Kremlin Hill and was quite small about 260 m long and 225 m wide.

In the beginning of the 13th century the Mongolian invasion starts. First, Bulgarians successfully fight the invaders, bur finally Genghis Khans grandson conquers and destroys the Volga Bulgaria. Then the Golden Horde starts to form cities begin to emerge from desolation, and trade and political links resume. Constant wars lead to population migrations northward and in the end of 14th century Kazan becomes the economic and political centre of the Volga Bulgaria.

15th century shows significant flourishing of the city Kazan is titled as princely or capital city. Citizens resume construction of Kremlin. In 1445 Kazan becomes the capital of the Kazan khanate after the Golden Horde collapsed. In the same time relations between the Kazan khanate and state of Russia are getting worse.

Between 1547 and 1550 Russian Tsar Ivan the Terrible tries to conquer Kazan but fails. Then he builds a fortress near the city on the bank of Sviaga River, and after 7-week siege with the help of 150 thousand warriors he enters the city.

In 1555 Ivan the Terrible orders to build the Kremlin, and the following year the construction begins. Several towers were added to the southern walls of the Kremlin Yugo-Zapadnaya, Spasskaya and Yugo-Vostochnaya. Inside the Kremlin the Blagoveshensky cathedral and other churches were located. Spassky convent buildings, Preobrashenskaya and Tainitskaya towers were also erected.

Kazan Guberniya (province) was formed in 1708, as a result of reforms of Peter the Great - when the Russian Empire was divided into 8 guberniyas (provinces). The Kazan province had vast territories and included several voivodships, Sviaga, Penza, Simbirsk, Ufa, Astrakhan and others. Later many of them became guberniyas themselves.

In the beginning of the 18th century first large enterprises appear in Kazan cloth manufacture, tannery and shipyard. The Kremlin changes its façade its walls are renovated, and Suumbike tower is built. On the order of Peter the Great the Admiralty is established in 1718, where in the first school of Kazan experts in ship construction are trained.

In 1758 Senate orders to open first provincial boys gymnasium in Russia. The school provided education for children of noblemen and officials. Kazan becomes the regional centre of culture and education. In 1766 first Sunday school for poor population opens in the city.

In 1767 the empress Catherine II visits Kazan and grants permission to build mosques first mason mosque Ephendi (Al-Mardzhani) is soon built.

Year 1771 two large madrasas Akhunovskoe and Apanaevskoe are opened; later, in 1780, one more madrasa, Usmania, opens its doors.

On June 12 1774 armed men of Emelian Pugatchov (famous Russian rebel) start Kazans siege. State troops come to rescue city dwellers, and Pugatchov and his men are forced to retreat to the other bank of Volga.

Kazans gunpowder factory is built in 1782 on order of Catherine II.

Year of 1798 Emperor Pavel grant permission to build a theatre.

Kazan Imperial University celebrates its opening February 14, 1805 Emperor Alexander I established it with his order.

First issue of Kazanskie Izvestia (Kazan News) comes off the press in 1811.

Over 61 thousand people inhabit Kazan in 1858.

Kazan horse-drawn railway is opened in 1875.

First telephones appeared in Kazan in 1881.

Electric trams appear in Kazan November 18, 1899.

In 1900 Kazan was a large centre of trading and was in top five of Russian largest cities its population reached 130 thousand to the moment.

Soviet system comes to power in Kazan on October 26, 1917.

Tatar Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (TASSR) forms in May 1920.

Kazan cult buildings are significantly damaged in the end of twenties the beginning of thirties of the 20th century they are partly destroyed, partly ransacked.

Many enterprises are moved to Kazan in 1941 after World War II (Great Patriotic war for Russians) begins. The city contributes a lot in the countrys victory in the war.

In November 2000 historical and archeological complex Kremlin of Kazan, established on order of the president of the Republic of Tatarstan, is included in the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural organizations UNESCO list of world cultural and natural heritage.

Year of 2005 Kazan celebrates its millennium anniversary. Several important social programmes are finished to coincide with the anniversary shabby residence liquidation programme and Kremlin of Kazan reconstruction programme; first subway line is opened for traffic.

It seems hard to estimate the role of Kazan in Russian history. This city has remarkable destiny despite being diverse, Kazan embodies the unity of various cultures.





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