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    Nalchik

Nalchik is a city in Russia, the capital city of Kabardino-Balkaria. The toponym "Nalchik" as one of the versions says, is a translation from the Kabardian-Circassian language means "horseshoe", since geographically the city is located in a semicircle of mountains that remind of a horseshoe shape. Thus a horseshoe has also become the city's emblem.

Nalchik is located in the foothills of the Great Caucasus (at the height of about 500 m), on River Nalchik (the basin of Terek), 1873 km to the South of Moscow. Nalchik has a railway station. The city's overall area makes 133 sq. km.

The climate is moderately continental. Winters are soft, low-snow, with unstable snow cover. Average temperature of January is -4 C. Springs are early, with plentiful precipitation, and are colder than autumns. Summers are very warm, rather dry, with a large number of clear sunny days. Average summer temperature is +25 C. Autumns are warm, dry, and sunny. Average temperature of October is +9 C. Precipitation is about 600 mm per year, mostly in spring and in summer.

Nalchik is a large touristic and mountaineering center.

In the city outskirts, in the district Dolinsk there is a balneal and mountain resort, with its area mostly covered with a forest park of coniferous and deciduous trees. Along with the climate the major medicinal factors include mineral waters of Belorechensky Springs (8 km away from Nalchik) and wells on the resort's area, and mud treatment (silt mud of the Tambukansky Lake near Pyatigorsk).

History of Nalchik

A mountain village was founded on the place of Nalchik in 1743, and in 1808 it became the administrative and political center of Kabarda, and the residence of Kabardian princes.

In 1822 Russian fortress Nalchik was constructed on the Caucasian fortified border. In 1838 a military settlement was founded by the fortress, and in 1871 it became the centre of the Nalchik District of Tersky Region.

It became a town in 1921, the centre of the Kabardino-Balkarian autonomous region in 1922, and then the capital of the Kabardino-Balkarian ASSR (in 1944-57 - Kabardian ASSR) in 1936-91.

During the Great Patriotic War of 1941-45 Nalchik was occupied by fascist armies on 28 October 1942. It was released on January 4, 1943 by armies of the Transcaucasian front during the North Caucasian operation.

Since 1991 Nalchik has been the capital of the Kabardino-Balkarian Republic.

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Nalchik
  (Kabardino-Balkar Republic)

Cities of the region

    Prokhladny
    Baksan
    Nartkala
    Maisky

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