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Satka is a Russian town (since 1937), the administrative center of the Satka District of the Chelyabinsk Region.

Its population makes 45.7 thousand people (as of 2009).

The town is located on River Bolshaya Satka, 176 km away from Chelyabinsk in the territory of historical Bashkortostan. It has a railway station on the line Berdyaush Bakal.

History of Satka

In 1756 businessmen came here and founded Satkinsky (Troitse-Satkinsky) iron and ironworks plant. The owners were constantly changing and, being sluggish entrepreneurs, naturally, did not care about the condition of their workers. It could not but lead to sad consequences, such as flights, revolts and disturbances.

The first open protests of workers took place in 1760, and then they unanimously supported the revolt of Yemelyan Pugachyov. Satka became one of the centers of concentration of his armed forces. Local government under command of ataman I. Kuznetsov was established there patterned after Cossacks. It was here where the colonel Michelson was sent by authorities and broke troops of Pugachyov, Beloborodov and Salavat Yulaev. The battle which occurred on May 30, 1774, was bloody. 400 people of the revolted were killed. Salavat Yulaev was wounded. Before retreat Pugachyovs forces burned Satka down. The citizens and serfs of the factory owner Luginin left together with rebels to the woods. There Pugachyov put his shabby armies in order and again appeared at Satkinsky plant, but on July 5 was defeated by Michelson.

Nevertheless, the plant developed, because the need for metal was considerable. It produced cast iron, which was not conceding on the quality to Swedish one, as well as shells, and cannon gun carriages. Excess of iron promoted forge trade.

In 1824 Satka was visited by Emperor Alexander I and the visit positively affected further development of its industry. By the end of the 19th century there were two blast furnaces here, and a railway line was laid between a mechanical workshop and a foundry.

In 1898 the laboratory assistant of Satka iron plant Peter Gavrilovich Salnikov, having found on the Karagay Mountain deposits of blue stone, investigated its properties and came to the conclusion that this mineral magnesite had fire-resistant qualities and could be applied in smelting metals. This discovery forever determined the destiny of the town and the district.

After discovery of magnesite field the same-name Magnesite plant for production of fire-resistant products was constructed, and the plants production was awarded a gold medal at the World industrial Fair in Belgian Liege in 1905.

All mining operations were performed manually. The plant equipment in the early 20th century consisted only of a furnace for magnesite roasting, a ball mill and a press. During the pre-revolutionary period Magnesite reached its greatest productivity.

At the beginning of the 20th century there lived up to 10 thousand people in Satka. Among them there were lots of newcomers. Old Believers of various sects came there striving for earnings. There were two churches, two schools, a post office, a telegraph, a hospital, a consumers society, and two industrial and 46 trade enterprises.

The Soviet power got quite a large production unit. Satka became an urban settlement in 1928, a district town in 1937 and a regional town in 1957.

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  (Chelyabinsk Region)

Cities of the region


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